HOME
Basics
Recording a 12-Lead ECG
  • 12-Lead
  • Chest leads
  • Ladder diagram
  • Lewis lead
  • Limb leads
  • Mirrored 12-Lead (dextrocardia)
  • Paediatric
  • Posterior leads
  • Rhythm Strip
  • Right leads
  • Serial 12-lead
Artefact
  • Nonspecific baseline artefact
  • Chest compression artefact
  • Electrical interference artefact
  • Electrode Detachment
  • Fistula artifact
  • Incorrect Machine Interpretation
  • Transcutaneous pacing artefact
  • Wandering baseline
Calibration
  • Standard Calibration
  • Double speed 50 mm/sec
Electrode misplacement
  • High V1/V2 misplacement
  • LA/LL electrode reversal
  • LA/LL + RA/RL electrode reversals
  • LA/RA electrode reversal
  • LA/RL electrode reversal
  • RA/LL electrode reversal
  • RA/RL electrode reversal
Signs
Rate
  • Bradycardia
  • Extreme tachycardia
  • Normal rate
  • Tachycardia
Regularity
  • Grouped
  • Irregular
  • Regular
P wave
  • Absent P waves
  • Asymmetrical P in V1
  • Extra P waves
  • Fibrillation waves
  • Flutter P waves
  • Hidden P waves
  • Inverted P waves
  • Normal P waves
  • Retrograde P waves
  • Tall P waves
  • Variable P waves
  • Wide P waves
PR interval & segment
  • Changing PR interval
  • Long PR
  • Normal PR
  • PR segment depression
  • Short PR
QRS axis
  • Changing Axis
  • Extreme Axis
  • Indeterminate axis
  • Left Axis Deviation
  • Normal Axis
  • Right Axis Deviation
  • Vertical axis
QRS complex
  • Capture beat
  • Dagger Q waves
  • Early R wave transition
  • Electrical alternans
  • Fragmented QRS
  • Fusion beat
  • Late R wave transition
  • Lead I sign
  • Narrow QRS
  • Normal Q wave
  • Normal R wave transition
  • Pathological Q waves
  • Prolonged R wave peak time
  • R in aVR
  • R in V1
  • S1Q3T3
  • Short QRS
  • Tall QRS
  • Terminal QRS distortion
  • Wide QRS
ST segment
  • Anterior ST depression
  • Anterior ST elevation
  • Concordant ST depression in V1-V3
  • Concordant ST elevation
  • Coved ST elevation
  • Discordant ST changes
  • Downsloping ST depression
  • Excessive discordant ST depression.
  • Excessive discordant ST elevation
  • Flat ST segment
  • Inferior ST depression
  • Inferior ST elevation
  • Lateral ST depression
  • Lateral ST elevation
  • Normal ST segment
  • Pseudonormalised ST segment
  • Reciprocal ST depression
  • Saddleback ST elevation
  • Septal ST elevation
  • Shark fin ST elevation
  • Horizontal ST depression
  • ST elevation in a PVC
  • ST elevation in aVL
  • ST elevation in aVR
  • ST elevation in III>II
  • ST elevation in posterior leads V7-9
  • ST elevation in V1
  • ST elevation in V4R
  • Straightened ST segment
  • Tombstone ST elevation
  • Upsloping ST depression
  • Widespread ST depression
  • Widespread ST elevation
T and U wave
  • Biphasic T waves
  • De Winter T waves
  • Deeply inverted T waves
  • Flat T waves
  • Hyperacute T waves
  • Inverted T waves
  • Inverted U waves
  • Normal T waves
  • Normal U waves
  • Peaked T waves
  • Pseudo-normalised T waves
  • T-U waves
  • Tall U waves
  • Wellens Waves
QT interval
  • Long QT
  • Normal QT
  • Short QT
Other waves
  • Cabrera's sign
  • Chapman's sign
  • Delta wave
  • Epsilon wave
  • J wave
  • Osborn wave
  • Pacemaker spikes
  • Pseudo R' wave
  • RSR'
  • Sine wave
  • Spiked helmet sign
  • Spodick's sign
  • Ta wave
Rhythms
Sinus Rhythms
  • Normal Sinus Rhythm
  • Sinus arrest
  • Sinus arrhythmia
  • Sinus bradycardia
  • Sinus node re-entrant tachycardia
  • Sinus pause
  • Sinus tachycardia
Atrial Rhythms
  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Atrial flutter
  • Atrial tachycardia
  • Atrial tachycardia - multifocal
  • AVRT antidromic
  • AVRT orthodromic
  • Coronary sinus rhythm
  • Wandering atrial pacemaker
Junctional Rhythms
  • Accelerated junctional rhythm
  • AVNRT
  • AVNRT fast-slow
  • Junctional escape
  • Junctional tachycardia
Ventricular Rhythms
  • Accelerated idioventricular rhythm
  • Non-sustained VT
  • Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Tachycardia
  • Torsades de Pointes
  • Ventricular escape
  • Ventricular Fibrillation
  • Ventricular flutter
  • Ventricular standstill
  • Ventricular tachycardia
  • Ventricular tachycardia - bidirectional
  • Ventricular tachycardia - fascicular
  • Ventricular tachycardia - polymorphic
Pacemakers
  • Atrial pacemaker
  • Failure to capture
  • ICD Overdrive Pacing
  • Pacemaker failure
  • Pacemaker mediated tachycardia
  • Ventricular pacemaker
Extra Beats
  • Atrial bigeminy
  • Atrial escape beat
  • Bigeminy
  • Blocked premature atrial complex
  • Premature atrial complex
  • Premature junctional complex
  • Premature ventricular complex
  • Trigeminy
  • Ventricular escape beat
Other Rhythms
  • Asystole
  • Change in rhythm
  • Isorhythmic dissociation
  • Multiple rhythms
  • Parasystole
  • Pulseless Electrical Activity
  • SVT
  • Wide complex tachycardia
Blocks
SA Blocks
  • Type I SA block
  • Type II SA block
AV Blocks
  • First degree AV block
  • High grade AV block
  • Second degree AV block
  • Second degree AV block 2:1
  • Second degree AV block Mobitz type 2
  • Second degree AV block type 1 - Wenckebach
  • Third degree AV block
  • Ventriculophasic sinus arrhythmia
BBB/Hemiblocks
  • Ashman aberrancy
  • Incomplete LBBB
  • Incomplete RBBB
  • Intraventricular conduction delay
  • LAFB
  • LBBB
  • LPFB
  • RBBB
Multiple Blocks
  • Bifascicular block
  • Trifascicular block
Ischemia
Basic STEMI localisation
  • Acute Anterior MI
  • Acute Inferior MI
  • Acute Lateral MI
  • Mid-anterior MI
  • Multi-vessel disease
  • Acute Posterior MI
  • Right ventricular MI
Old vs new ischemia
  • Old anterior MI
  • Old Inferior MI
ST changes with LBBB
  • Positive Sgarbossa criteria
ST depression and ischemia
  • Diffuse subendocardial ischaemia
  • Left main occlusion
  • Left main stenosis
  • Proximal LAD occlusion
Other Conditions
Electrolyte
  • Hypercalcaemia
  • Hyperkalemia
  • Hypocalcaemia
  • Hypokalemia
  • Hypomagnesaemia
Hypertrophy and enlargement
  • Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
  • Left atrial enlargement
  • LVH
  • Right atrial enlargement
  • RVH
Pulmonary and Pericardial
  • Acute right heart strain
  • COPD
  • Cor pulmonale
  • Pericardial effusion
  • Pericarditis
  • Pulmonary embolism
STEMI Mimic
  • CVA
  • LV aneurysm
  • MINOCA
  • Myocardial rupture
Syndrome
  • Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Cardiomyopathy
  • Brugada syndrome
  • Familial catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia
  • Long QT syndrome
  • Lown Ganong Levine syndrome
  • Short QT syndrome
  • Sick sinus syndrome
  • Wellens syndrome
  • Wolff Parkinson White syndrome
Toxicology / Overdose
  • Beta blocker toxicity
  • Calcium channel blocker toxicity
  • Carbamazepine toxicity
  • Digoxin effect
  • Digoxin toxicity
  • Propranolol toxicity
  • Quetiapine toxicity
  • Sodium channel blocker toxicity
  • Sotalol toxicity
Other
  • Aortic dissection
  • Aortic stenosis
  • Atrial Septal Defect
  • Cardiac T-wave memory
  • Coronary artery spasm
  • Dextrocardia
  • Dilated cardiomyopathy
  • Hyperthermia
  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Hypothermia
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Juvenile T wave pattern
  • Metabolic acidosis
  • Myocardial Bridging
  • Myocarditis
  • Normal
  • Normal ST elevation
  • Raised intracranial pressure
  • Restrictive cardiomyopathy
  • Reverse Takotsubo
  • Spontaneous coronary artery dissection
  • Takotsubo cardiomyopathy
Clinical Problems
Cardiovascular symptoms
  • Cardiac arrest
  • Chest pain
  • Hypertension
  • Hypotension
  • Palpitations
General symptoms
  • Cough
  • Dizziness
  • Dyspnoea
  • Fatigue
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Syncope
  • Weakness
Other Problems
  • Abdominal pain
  • Blunt Trauma
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Diarrhoea
  • Fever
  • Long lie
  • Muscle pains
  • Seizure
  • Vomiting
ECG Paint
ECG Simulator