- Rowlands, A and Sargent, A (2019) - The ECG Workbook, 4th edn, M&K Publishing
- (2015) - ECG Interpretation Made Incredibly Easy!, 6th edn, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins
- Wagner, GS and Strauss, DG (2013) - Marriott's Practical Electrocardiography, 12th edn, LWW
- Nurseledclinics (2011) - www.fastlearnecg.com : Simple reading and Interpreting of a 12-lead ECG (EKG) - Yes you can do it!, (Accessed: 10/09/2019)
This ECG is from a man in his 70s who presented with intermittent dyspnoea and chest pain over the past 2 weeks. He had a history of a pacemaker, heart failure, aortic stenosis, diabetes, hypertension, stroke, ischemic heart disease, chronic kidney disease and peripheral vascular disease. This was his initial ECG.
This ECG shows a wide complex tachycardia with ventricular pacing. The excessively discordant ST changes in V4-6 and aVR suggested diffuse subendocardial ischemia. He was found to have severe three vessel disease and a proximal left circumflex stenosis was stented.
This ECG is from a young man who was found at the bottom of his basement stairs. He complained of right hip or leg pain but seemed confused about what had happened. He had a history of IV heroin abuse. Shortly after he had a wide complex PEA arrest and had a ROSC after 20 min of resuscitation with epinephrine, glucose, calcium and bicarb. This was his baseline ECG from a previous presentation.
This ECG is from a man in his 50s who presented with chest pain on a background of previous CABG and dual chamber pacemaker. This was the repeat ECG on arrival.
This ECG shows a wandering baseline making ST interpretation difficult, but a ventricular paced rhythm with excessive discordant ST depression in aVL and borderline excessive discordant ST elevation in inferior leads. The cause was an inferior and right ventricular infarction.