- Hampton, J and Hampton, J (2019) - The ECG Made Easy, 9th edn, Elsevier
- Rowlands, A and Sargent, A (2019) - The ECG Workbook, 4th edn, M&K Publishing
- Thaler, MS (2018) - The Only EKG Book You'll Ever Need, 9th edn, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins
- Grauer, K (2014) - A 1st Book on ECGs - 2014, KG/EKG Press
- Grauer, K (2014) - ECG 2014 Pocket Brain, 6th edn, KG/EKG Press
- Houghton, AR and Gray, D (2014) - Making Sense of the ECG: A Hands-on Guide, 4th edn, Taylor and Francis
- Wagner, GS and Strauss, DG (2013) - Marriott's Practical Electrocardiography, 12th edn, LWW
- Goldberger, A (2006) - Clinical Electrocardiography: A Simplified Approach, 9th edn, Elsevier
- Ariel Haas (2012) - anatomy physiology chapter 15 part 3 EKG, (Accessed: 08/09/2019)
- Nurseledclinics (2011) - www.fastlearnecg.com : Simple reading and Interpreting of a 12-lead ECG (EKG) - Yes you can do it!, (Accessed: 10/09/2019)
- Osmosis (2019) - ECG Cardiac Hypertrophy | Osmosis, (Accessed: 07/09/2019)
Variations: QRS complex
This ECG is from a woman in her 50s who presented with chest pressure on a background of heart failure and hypertension. BP 223/125.
This ECG shows sinus rhythm, LBBB and anterior ST elevation. Sgarbossa positive but modified sgarbossa negative. Echo showed LVH, troponin did show a rise and fall, MIBI showed normal perfusion. The most likely cause was a type II MI. The ECG changes did not evolve and were likely baseline changes.
This ECG is from a woman in her 60s who presented in acute heart failure with dyspnoea and intermittent chest discomfort.
This ECG shows atrial fibrillation, LVH and diffuse ST-T changes.
This ECG is from a patient who presented with acute chest pain on a background of diabetes.
This ECG shows LVH and inferior ST elevation with depression in aVL (slight). This was new in comparison to the baseline ECG. The cause was most likely a RCA narrowing.
This ECG is from an otherwise healthy, thin, African American male.
This ECG shows high voltage QRS and ST elevation with J waves, without discordant ST depression and T wave inversion, likely due to early repolarisation in a young person with a thin chest wall.
This ECG is from a patient of unknown age who had a systolic BP of 220 mm HG and no ischemic symptoms.
This ECG shows tall QRS complexes meeting LVH criteria with anterior ST elevation. Echo confirmed marked left ventricular hypertrophy only.
This ECG is from a teenage male who presented with chest tightness and shortness of breath for 6 hours on a background of asthma.
This ECG shows sinus rhythm with tall QRS and associated repolarisation changes, benign T wave inversion in V3-V6 with J-waves and ST-elevation.
This ECG is from a man in his 70s who presented with epigastric pain on a background of hypertension.
This ECG shows LBBB and occasional PVCs with discordant changes that do not meet Sgarbossa criteria. The patient self-discharged against advice before an echo could be completed for possible LVH.
This ECG is from a man in his 60s who presented with syncope during haemodialysis along with general lethargy and mild shortness of breath. This was his repeat ECG when he developed worsening dyspnoea with hypoxia, hypotension and confusion.
Where did they come from?
These ECGs were collected from Free Open Access Medical Education (#FOAMed) blogs, with the permission of their authors. You can find out more about each ECG's source by clicking on it.
Why are they here?
This is an experiment in digital curation. The idea is to collect resources to increase awareness and accessibility. Over time, more ECGs in the collection will be tagged to make it easier to find them and reused in new interactive quizzes.
How can I use these ECGs?
You can use these ECGs for your own learning, teaching or research - as long as you abide by the terms of each ECG's copyright licence as stipulated by the original author.